How can one classify a true adult? Many people directly attribute age to adulthood. The problem with this methodology becomes evident when you discuss the topic with various people of different cultural backgrounds. If you ask each of them what age they believe constitutes the point at which a person progresses from childhood into adulthood, their answers will always be different. Because every one of the answers are based on subjective opinion. So what constitutes emotional maturity, and thus adulthood? Here are 20 defining characteristics of a true adult:. Above all, true adults do what they have to do when it is required of them, and they do what they want when they can. They are able to distinguish between the two and manage their time and efforts accordingly.
Criticisms of the Theory of Adult Learning
Malcolm Knowles Principles of Adult Learning
Malcolm Knowles is perhaps the best known person for popularizing the theory that adults bring unique characteristics to the learning experience. But the theory is also controversial. See the Criticisms of Adult Learning Theory at the end of this article. The theory of adult learning infers that adults are not oversized children. Maturity and experience bring unique characteristics that affect how adults learn. According to this theory, appealing to the unique qualities of adult learners allows learning designers and educators to create more effective and motivating instruction. The following is a list of generalized characteristics common to many but not all adult learners. Critics of the theory deem that andragogy is not a real science because it cannot be measured Rachal, Furthermore, the characteristics that Knowles presents are not present in all adults. Some adults are not independent learners and are dependent on a teacher.
Andragogy is the study of how adults learn and is a theory developed by Malcolm Knowles based on a variety of research centered on adult development, needs, and learning styles. More recent theories of adult learning have called these assumptions into question, proposing that there may be degrees or certain conditions under which they apply or that self-direction, for instance, may be desirable but not always the reality of adult learners. Nevertheless, these assumptions continue to serve widely as a general guide for thinking about adult learners. Adults are results-oriented and want to shift quickly from theory to application. Adult learners are intrinsically motivated and work best when learning has clear, relevant goals. Reference Glickman, C. Supervision and instructional leadership: A development approach.
Sign up to our newsletter. Learners differ in many ways, from gender to culture to previous education. It's important to be aware of these factors when teaching. However adult learners do share similar traits which impact their learning:. Adults are more reluctant to change because their thinking has become more rigid due to life experiences. It's important to explain why making these specific changes is important and how the changes will help them, the team, company, etc. In addition, linking new ideas to their existing beliefs and ideas is a good way to get them onboard and optimise learning. Adults prefer to have control over their learning because they hold themselves accountable for their lives and their decision-making - they take responsibility for their own achievements or failures at learning.